To determine whether children with a history of positional plagiocephaly/brachycephaly (PPB) show persistent deficits in motor development.
In a longitudinal cohort study, we completed follow-up assessments with 187 school-aged children with PPB and 149 participants without PPB who were originally enrolled in infancy. Primary outcomes were the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-Second Edition (BOT-2) composite scores.
Children with PPB scored lower than controls on the BOT-2. Stratified analyses indicated that differences were restricted to children who had moderate-severe PPB. No consistent differences were observed in children who had mild PPB.
Children who had moderate-severe PPB in infancy show persistent differences in motor function. We suggest close developmental monitoring and early intervention to address motor deficits.